Kinerja Pengawas Menelan Obat (PMO) Penderita TB Paru BTA+

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ABSTRAK

Penyakit TB Paru adalah penyakit menular yang disebabkan oleh kumanMycobacterium tuberculosis. Puskesmas I Denpasar Selatan merupakan Puskesmas dengan kejadian TB Paru BTA-# paling tinggi. Hampir semua pasien tuberkulosis mempunyai pengawas menelan obat (PMO). Seharusnya yang menjadi pengawas menelan obat (PMO) adalah tenaga kesehatan, tetapi karena kekurangan tenaga kesehatan, maka sebagian besar dari PMO tersebut adalah keluarga pasien. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui Kinerja Pengawas Menelan Obat (PMO).

Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian deskriptif dengan desain cross sectional. Sampel penelitian sebanyak 26 PMO penderita TB Paru BTA-# dan penderita TB Paru BTA- di Puskesmas I Denpasar Selatan tahun 2012, yang dipilih secara total sampling. Data dikumpulkan melalui wawancara dengan kuesioner kemudian dianalisis secara deskriptif.

PMO masing-masing 506 perempuan dan laki-laki. Sebagian besar PMO berpendidikan menengah (76,996) dan sebagian besar PMO adalah anggota keluarga dari penderita TB Paru BIA+ (88,5%). PMO sebagian besar bekerja sebagai wiraswasta (80,89) dan rata-rata umur PMO adalah 39 tahun.

Tingkat pengetahuan PMO baik. 100Y6 PMO mempunyai pengetahuan yang baik tentang TB Paru. Sebesar 1006 PMO mempunyai sikap setuju terhadap perannya dalam keberhasilan pengobatan TB Paru BTA-#. Sebesar 19,246 PMO mempunyai kinerja yang baik dan 80,896 mempunyai kinerja yang kurang. PMO yang mengetahui lamanya pengobatan TB Paru 19,006 mempunyai kinerja baik dan PMO yang tidak mengetahui lamanya pengobatan TB Paru 20,00Y6 mempunyai kinerja baik, jadi tidak bermakna karena tidak ada perbedaan proporsi dan secara statistik tidak bermakna ( p —-0,937 CI —-0,891-0,000 ).

Sedangkan PMO yang mengetahui tentang bahaya TB Paru 25,006 mempunyai kinerja baik dan PMO yang tidak mengetahui tentang bahaya TB Paru 10,0096 yang mempunyai kinerja baik, jadi bermakna karena ada perbedaan proporsi yaitu 15,006. Tetapi secara statistik tidak bermakna ( p-0,345 CI =0,347-0,730 ).

Keywords: Pengawas menelan obat, pengetahuan, sikap, pelaksanaan tugas PMO

PENDAHULUAN

Pulmonary TB is a contagious disease caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, which affects people of all ages. Acid-fast Basil Tuberculosis (TB), also known as Pulmonary TB, has not yet been successfully eradicated and has infected a third of the world’s population (Depkes RI, 2002).

WHO reports that 3 million people die from Pulmonary TB every year and an estimated 5,000 people every day. Each year, there are 9 million new cases of Pulmonary TB, resulting in 2,596 deaths and suffering among the population, particularly among people in the productive age range of 15 to 54 years old. In developing countries, Pulmonary TB deaths account for 25% of all deaths that could have been prevented. Southeast Asia bears the heaviest burden of the global Pulmonary TB, accounting for about 38% of all Pulmonary TB cases in the world (WHO, 2004).

In Indonesia, Pulmonary TB is a major public health issue. The number of TB patients in Indonesia in 2010 was the fourth highest in the world, after India, China, and South Africa. It is estimated that in 2010, the incidence rate of all types of TB was 450,000 cases or 189 per 100,000 population, the prevalence rate of all types of TB was 690,000 or 289 per 100,000 population, and the death rate from TB was 64,000 or 27 per 100,000 population or 175 people per day (Depkes RI, 2010).

In the early 1990s, WHO (World Health Organization) and IUATLD (International Union Against TB and Lung Disease) developed a strategy to control Pulmonary TB known as the DOTS strategy, which has been proven to be the most cost-effective strategy (Depkes RI, 2001). The DOTS strategy focuses on finding and accurately diagnosing cases of Pulmonary TB, primarily through microscopic examination, and ensuring that each patient is monitored during treatment, which is known as Directly Observed Therapy (DOTS). Therefore, to ensure the regular treatment of Pulmonary TB, a medication supervisor (PMO) is required (Depkes RI, 2001).

Bali Province has also implemented the DOTS strategy in the control of Pulmonary TB. One district in Denpasar, Denpasar Selatan, has 4 Puskemas that have implemented the DOTS strategy in the control of Pulmonary TB. Puskesmas I Denpasar Selatan is a Puskesmas with a high occurrence of TB…

Method

This research is a descriptive study with a cross-sectional design. The research was conducted from March to May 2013 and took place in Puskesmas 1I Denpasar Selatan and involved visits to the homes of TB patients with BTA-4. The population in this study is all medication supervisors (PMO) of TB patients with BTA-4 in Puskesmas I Denpasar Selatan, a total of 26 people. The total sampling technique was used and a sample of 26 people was selected.

Results

Characteristics of Research Subjects

According to the research, the gender of medication supervisors is equally divided between male and female, with 13 (50%) of each. The majority of medication supervisors for TB patients with BTA-4 have a high school education (76.96%) and the least have a college education (3.89%). The majority of medication supervisors are family members of the patients (88.5%), while the remaining 11.5% are not family members. Of those who are not family members, 100% are not health workers but friends of the TB patients with BTA-4. Most of the respondents are self-employed (80.8%) and the average age of PMO is 39 years.

Based on the results, 100% of PMO have a good level of knowledge. This result is not similar to previous research that has been conducted. A study conducted in Puskesmas Kota Cirebon in 2007 found that more than half of the respondents had good knowledge about Pulmonary TB (53%) (Gusida, 2007). PMO of TB patients in Puskesmas I Denpasar Selatan are supervisors who have been selected by the Puskesmas and often receive counseling about TB together with the patients, which might be the reason why the knowledge of PMO about Pulmonary TB is good. Additionally, in this study, a questionnaire containing 10 general questions about TB was used to measure knowledge, so PMO were able to answer the questions correctly.

Conclusion

Medication supervisors consist of 50% male and 50% female. Most of PMO have a high school education (76.9%) and the majority are family members of TB patients with BTA-4 (88.5%). Most PMO are self-employed (80.8%) and the average age is 39 years old. 100% of PMO have good knowledge and 100% PMO have a supportive or positive attitude towards the role of medication supervisors in the success of TB treatment with BTA-4. However, most PMO have less performance (81.8%). After analyzing the proportion, there is no significant difference between PMO’s knowledge about TB treatment and PMO’s performance (p=0.937, CI=0.891-0.000). However, there is a significant difference between PMO’s knowledge about the danger of TB and PMO’s performance, because 15% of PMO who know about the danger of TB have better performance than those who do not know about the danger of TB, but this difference is not statistically significant (p=0.345, CI=0.347-0.730).

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DAFTAR PUSTAKA

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Last Updated on 12 Januari 2023

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