Popularity of Tourist Attraction in Bali From the Perspective of Foreign Tourists

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Tourist Attraction in Bali

This study aims to determine the popularity of tourist attraction in Bali, the position of a tourist attraction in Bali Respondents in this study were foreign tourists visiting Bali, the number of samples taken by 100 respondents by purposive sampling. Analysis of data using descriptive and statistical analysis of multidimensional scaling. The most popular attraction by tourists are Kuta, Sanur, Nusa Dua, Jimbaran, Tanah Lot and Ubud. Group tourist attraction in Bali positioned into four quadrant and two-dimensional. Dimension 1 is the tourist attractions that have many similarity or close competitors and dimension 2 is illustrates attraction that has a lot of differences or distant competitors.

Keywords: position, attraction, Bali, foreign tourist, multidimensional scaling analysis.

Introduction

The era of globalization is interpreted vary by academics and practitioners of tourism. Globalization on the one hand is believed to have a positive impact on the sustainability of a tourist attraction. However there who believe the era of globalization impacting negative for more open competition. Bali as part of the tourism destinations in Indonesia became one of the destinations that have a diversity of attractions, ranging from culture, nature and a combination of both.

Bali has 16 tourist destinations and has more than 150 attractions are spread evenly throughout in all regency and city in Bali. (Bali Provincial Regulation No. 16 Year 2009, 2009). Although it has many tourist attractions, but the number of visits at each tourist attraction varied. 10 The appeal which was visited by the highest according to the department of tourism province of Bali in 2015 is Tanah Lot 3 million more tourists, foreign and domestic, Followed tourist attraction Ulu watu as many as 1.1 million tourists, Ulun Danu as many as 735 thousand tourists, Kintamani only 500 thousand tourists in a year. Botanical Garden in Bedugul visit as many as 463 thousand tourists, Tirta Empul visited by 443 thousand, Hot Water Banjar as many as 303 thousand in Singaraja. Bali Safari Park is only 300 thousand and Goa Gajah in Gianyar was visited 286 thousand foreign and domestic tourists in 2015.

Fluctuations visit the tourist attraction can be a sign of competition between attraction and perception of diverse travelers against the major tourist attraction. Business travel appeal is required to be able to implement a strategy to maintain and even increase tourist visits and study the behavior of tourists through their perception of the power of a tourist attraction.

Various strategies are used academics and practitioners such as improving the quality of service, increase customer satisfaction and loyalty, enhancing the image of tourism destinations (Crompton, 1979; Baker and Crompton, 2000; Chen and Tsai, 2007; Mohamed et al., 2009; Alegre and Garau, 2010; Li, 2011), as well as failure recovery services (Nikbin et al., 2010; Lo et al., 2012; Sudiarta, Suardana and Ariana, 2014b).

Research of competitive position and using multidimensional scaling analysis conducted by some researchers (Shaw, 1992; Power, Haberlin and Foley, 2005; Mohamed et al., 2009; Njuguna, 2009; Sudiarta, Suardana and Ariana, 2014a). But there is still little that examines the competitive position of a tourist attraction, especially tourist attraction islands, such as Bali (Sudiarta, Suardana and Ariana, 2014a).

Methodology

The design of the sample in this study using a non-probability sampling, (Malhotra, 2010). The sampled population are foreign tourists, from three continents, namely: (1). Europe, (2) American, and (3) Asia because they are considered to represent the population of the fifteen countries of origin of tourists who come to Bali. This research was conducted in Bali, on 12 tourist attraction (Kuta, Tanjung Benoa, Jimbaran, Nusa Dua, Sanur, Medewi, Tanah Lot, Ubud, Kintamani, Lembongan, Tulamben and Lovina. Tourists who are targeted samples were tourists who visit and considered know the tourist attraction in Bali. The variables in this study to adapt and adopt the results of previous studies (Echtner and Ritchie, 1991; Mill and Morisson, 2009; Mohamed et al., 2009),which can be seen from the aspect (1) tourist atttractions (2) facilities, (3) Infrastructure, (4) Cost or price and (5) the hospitality of the people.

After checking and tabulation of data, then analysed using multivariate analysis, namely Multidimensional scaling (MDS) and correspondence Analysis or CA (Hair et al., 1995). Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is also known as perceptual mapping procedure which provide the opportunity for researchers to specify the relative perception of an object such as company, product, idea, or a variety of items associated with perception (Hair et al., 1995). The goal of MDS is ratings about the similarities and preferences of tourists in a multi-dimensional scale. MDS can be used as a strategy to market a tourist attraction based on the similarities and differences and preferences of travelers (Kotler, 2000; Kotler, Keller and Lu, 2009; Kotler, Bowen and Makens, 2010; Sudiarta, Suardana and Ariana, 2014a).

Results and Discussion

Results and analysis of the study were divided into two, namely: a descriptive and statistical analysis. Descriptive analysis includes: gender, level of education, the period of the visit and the popularity tourist attractions in Bali. Analysis statistical used Multidimensional scaling (MDS).

Characteristics of Respondents

Among the respondents, the results show that the higest percentage of respondents were Australian (25%), followed by Chinese (12%), Malaysian and Japanese (6%), Singapore, South Korea, French and Taiwanese (4%). American and German as well as Indian, Dutch, Rusiian and New Zealand represented the lowest percentage, i.e., 3% and 2 respectively (see Figure 1).

Nationality of foreign tourist visiting Bali

  1. word image 3292 1 Nationality of foreign tourist visiting Bali (source: primary reseacrh, 2014)

■ Percen…

Sex

Of the 100 respondents, 68.7% were male and 31, 3 % female, a difference of 37.4 %. This suggests that male tourists to Bali outnumbered males by a ratio of 7:3

Education

Type of education respondents who visited the 12 tourist attraction in Bali are mostly high school educated (56%), followed by postgraduate degree 19 percent, 16 percent of Diplome three 3 years and doctoral degree about 8.7 percent.

Period of visit

Periods of tourist arrivals in outline can be divided into two parts, namely, first-time visits and return visits. More than 80 percent Foreign Tourists visiting Bali are those who’ve never been to Bali. Only 12 percent of tourists who visit the tourist attraction in Bali was their first visit. The second visit until the third time it reaches 20 percent. More than 50 percent of respondents have been more than 5 times. This means that Bali is a major tourist destination and a second home for them.

Popularity of Tourist Attractions in Bali

Based on the questionnaire given to respondents in 12 major tourist attraction in Bali, 100 respondents stated his views as follows: Kuta, Sanur, Nusa Dua and Jimbaran is a tourist attraction that most known and visited by foreign tourists. I call the most popular tourist attraction. Tourist attraction that is not widely known by foreign tourists is Medewi Beach is located in the district of Jembrana. The location is far from city center Denpasar and Kuta as an exotic tourist attraction in Bali. Lack of promotion and information one of the causes of the lack of information and knowledge rating of Medewi Beach. As presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Foreign Tourist Knowledge of Tourists Attractions in Bali

Name of Tourist Attractions
Amount
Percentages
Rangkings
Kuta
100
100
1
Medewi
45
30,0
9
Tanah Lot
98
98. 7
3
Tanjung Benoa
97
95. 3
4
Nusa Dua
99
99. 3
2
Jimbaran
99
99. 3
2
Sanur
100
100
1
Ubud
98
98, 7
3
Lembongan
88
58,.7
7
Kintamani
73
48. 7
8
Tulamben
96
94.0
5
Lovina
95
82. 7
6

Source: Primary data, 2014

Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis

MDS is one of multivariate techniques to analyze the relationship of interdependence or interrelationship between variables (Hair et al., 1995). The software which is currently used for the analysis of SPSS with ability MDS is making ALSCAL and INDSCAL.

The range of steps in the analysis of MDS include 1) the problem formulation, 2) the input data, the similarity and dissimilarity value of the object is assessed, 3) the selection procedures in the form of data MDS metric and non­metric, 4) the determination of dimensions based on research- previous studies, 5) giving the name of the group or configuration and 6) test the validity and reliability by using the value of Stress and R -Square.

MDS analysis is used to determine the competitive position of tourist attraction to other tourist attraction. Kuta in this case compared to 23 other tourist attractions. Dimension 1 depicts a tourist attraction has much in common with others tourist attractions. Meanwhile, the second dimension describes the position of a tourist attractions that has a different or far from each other. Based on the research described the position of tourist attraction in the four quadrants.

Group tourist attraction that exist in the quadrant are: Kuta, Ubud, Tanah Lot and Nusa Dua. Segment tourist attraction is competing with other groups that are in quadrant II, III and IV. Quadrant nearest competitor group is an attraction in quadrant II, followed by a tourist attraction in quadrant IV and III.

Group of tourist attractions in quadrant II is Medewi Beach, Tanjung Benoa and Jimbaran. The nearest competitor tourist attraction in this quadrant are quadrant I and II as well as competitors furthest is a tourist attraction in quadrant IV. Group tourist attraction in quadrant III is a tourist attraction Lembongan, Lovina and Sanur. Group tourist attraction will compete with some of the tourist attraction located in quadrant IV, namely Tulamben and Kintamani, tourist attraction will also compete with the major tourist attraction in quadrant II and the farthest is in quadrant IV.

While groups of tourist attraction in quadrant IV are a tourist attraction Tulamben and Kintamani, a tourist attraction it is a closecompetitor of the tourist attraction in a row Sanur, Lovina and lembongan, three is a tourist attraction that offers water. Why compete with the Kintamani tourist attraction that offers water attractions. Tourists move or relocate in other tourism destinations because of several factors such as the quality of tourist attraction, satisfaction, satisfaction post­recovery services, as well as the image of the tourist attraction. Kintamani within the last 5 years the negative spotlight for a few things like cleanliness, parking and also the friendliness of the local guides especially by street vendors. It is possible that tourist shift to another tourist attraction. AS presented in Figure 2.

Derived Stimulus Configuration

  1. Position of Tourists Attractions in
    Bali

Dimension 2

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.0

-0.5

-1.0

-1.5

Kuta O Ubud

O

Tanah.Lot

O0

Nusa Dua

Medewi

O

Tanjung.Benoa O

Jimbaran

O

Tulamben

K Kintamani

O

O

Lembongan.island

Lovina

O 0

Sanur

Individual differences (weighted) Euclidean distance model

-1.5 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5

Dimension 1

T 1 1 1 1 Γ

Recommendations

After knowing the position of competitors then the next step is to determine the strategy being used either as a leader or a follower. Because each a tourist attraction in Bali has similar potency, namely the the potential of nature, culture and a combination of both. So the strategy that can be done is by means of improve infrastructure, increase the service satisfaction and of service recovery in the event of complaints as well as to build the image of a tourist attraction and satisfaction through the quality of service recovery (Baker and Crompton, 2000; Saha and Theingi, 2009; Alegre and Garau, 2010; Sudiarta, Suardana and Ariana, 2014b).

Limitations

Each study has limitation. This study has limitations because it does not compare with the respondent tourists, which may have similarities or differences with this research. Future research is expected to complement the weakness of this study. MDS analysis does not provide a solution strategy, so it needs to be supplemented with the analysis such as the analysis of the correspondent so that it can be seen each tourist attraction competed in several indicators, such as culture, technology and so on.

 

Conclusion and Recommendation

Conclusion

Based on the research objectives, namely to determine the popularity of a tourist attraction, determine the position of each tourist attractions in Bali. Kuta, Sanur, Nusa Dua, Jimbaran Tanah Lot and Ubud are the most populer tourists’ atractions acoording to the foreign tourists. Position tourist attraction can be described with two dimensions: one dimension is an attraction that has a lot of similarities and a second dimension is the attraction that has many differences. Medewi Beach, Tanjung Benoa and Jimbaran are groups that has many similarities and also as a close competitor.

References

Alegre, J. and Garau, J. (2010) ‘Tourist satisfaction and dissatisfaction’, Annals of tourism research. Elsevier, 37(1), pp. 52-73.

Baker, D. A. and Crompton, J. L. (2000) ‘Quality, satisfaction and behavioral intentions’, Annals of tourism research. Elsevier, 27(3), pp. 785­804.

Bali Provincial Regulation No. 16 Year 2009 (2009) ‘Bali Provincial Regulation No. 16 Year 2009 on Spatial Planning of Bali Province Year 2009-2029.’

Chen, C.-F. and Tsai, D. (2007) ‘How destination image and evaluative factors affect behavioral intentions?’, Tourism management. Elsevier, 28(4), pp.1115-1122.

Crompton, J. L. (1979) ‘An assessment of the image of Mexico as a vacation destination and the influence of geographical location upon that image’, Journal of travel research. Sage Publications Sage CA: Thousand Oaks, CA, 17(4), pp. 18-23.

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Kotler, P., Keller, K. L. and Lu, T. (2009) Marketing management in China. Prentice Hall.

Li, W. (2011) ‘Study of service recovery of travel agency based on customer satisfaction’, in International

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Cities and the environment in the Asian Century. The Department of Park and Wildlife Perth Western Australia.

 

Last Updated on 25 Agustus 2022

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